FreeBSD Shell Configuration, Tutorial, Howto
FreeBSD Shell Configuration(TM)



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    We will be making an number of changes to the FreeBSD startup file named '.cshrc' which is located on the FreeBSD hard drive in the user's home directory.  For the 'root' user, this would be:

    For your convenience, we have included the .cshrc start up file linked here.


  1. If the computer isn't running turn it on and let it boot up.

  2. When it shows:

  3. Enter:



  4. Since we will be editing various configuration files, we will need to use an editor program.  First of all, do not use 'vi'!  'vi' is a very difficult program to learn and is very counter-intuitive.

    Because of this, the first thing we will do is to install 'Pico':

  5. At the command prompt '#', enter:

    cd /usr/ports/editors/pico/
  6. Enter:

    make install
    The process to install Pico will begin.  It will most likely try to download the source code it needs from an FTP server.  The file is about 4 MB, and you should see a progress line indicating about how long it will take to download.

    After the Pico source code has been downloaded, the 'executable' will be 'built'.  You may see some other programs, like a spelling checker also being built.

  7. Once the 'make' and 'install' has finished, you see the command prompt '#'.  Now enter:

    pkg_info | more
    (The pipe character '|' is probably located on your keyboard as the shifted version of the '\' key).

    (The 'more' command after the pipe character tells the computer to only show a page of data at a time.  In order to see other pages, use the 'Pg Dn', 'Pg Up', 'Enter' keys, space bar, or arrow keys.)

    This command, 'pkg_info' will give information about which packages are installed on your computer.

  8. Reboot by entering:

    shutdown -r now
  9. Once the computer reboots and you have again logged in, enter:

  10. Pico should come up.  To exit Pico, enter:

    (Hold the 'Ctrl' key down, and simultaneously press the 'X' key.)

  11. Now that we have Pico loaded let's edit some configuration files to our taste.

    The file named '.cshrc' is a start-up file like 'autoexec.bat' in DOS.  The dot '.' at the beginning of the file name tells the operating system (OS) that the file is ordinarily hidden.  The 'csh' stands for 'C-shell'.  'C' is the programming language that it is written in.  'Shell' refers to the outer layer of the operating system that a person usually interacts with.  The 'kernel' of an OS, just like a kernel of a nut, is the inner, meaty part of the operating system.  The final part of this file name, 'rc' stands for 'runtime commands'.  So, '.cshrc' contains the startup runtime commands for the C-shell command line.

    The .cshrc file for each user is kept in their home directory.  So, for the 'root' user, this file is kept in '/root/'.

  12. Enter the following:

    cd /root/
  13. To confirm that you actually are in the /root/ directory, enter:

    This command will give you the Present Working Directory that you are located in.

  14. To confirm that the '.cshrc' file exists, enter:

    ls   -lt
    You should see .cshrc listed.

  15. Before we edit this file, let's make a duplicate, backup copy, for safety's sake.  Enter:

    cp   -p   .cshrc   .cshrc.1.bak
    (That's the number 'one' not the letter 'ell')

    This command tells the system to copy (cp), [p]reserving file attributes, the file named '.cshrc' to a new file, '.cshrc.bak1'.

  16. To confirm that we have made a backup copy, enter:

    ls   -lt
    You should see both files, and they should have the same size and date.

  17. Now let's edit the .cshrc file by entering:

    pico   .cshrc
    You now see the contents of this file before you.

  18. The first change that we want to make is for ensuring that we don't overwrite files inadvertently.

    Note that when ever you see a '#' (number sign, hash mark) at the beginning of a line, it is a comment line.  It's there for our benefit--the computer just ignores it.

    Just before the line that says:

    alias   h     history   25
    Let's add 3 aliases by inserting the following lines:

    # Change the 'rm' (remove) command to interactive mode for safety:
    alias rm       'rm   -i'

    # Copy Interactively with a prompt before overwriting
    alias cp       'cp   -i'

    # Move or Rename Interactively with a prompt before overwriting
    alias mv       'mv   -i'

    The 'rm' command is extremely powerful.  It will ReMove files and directories very quickly and efficiently.  By forcing this command to work in the 'Interactive' mode, (-i), you will have to confirm any deletions before rm will proceed.  Similarly, by adding '-i' to 'cp' and 'mv' they will be forced into interactive mode as well.

    Note that if you press the TAB key between 'rm' and 'rm -i', you will align up the columns of the aliases properly.

  19. Now let's add 8 shortcut aliases to the list.  Just below the lines we just typed in, let's add:

    # LiSt files with Largest last:
    alias lsl       'ls -ablprtFT | sort -n +4'

    # LiSt files a page at a time with Largest shown first:
    alias lslm       'ls -ablprtFT | sort -n +4 -r | more'

    # LiSt files with Smallest shown last:
    alias lss       'ls -ablprtFT | sort -n +4 -r'

    # LiSt files a page at a time with the Smallest shown first:
    alias lssm       'ls -ablprtFT | sort -n +4 | more'

    # LiSt files with the newly modified (Time) shown last:
    alias lst       'ls -ablprtFT'

    # LiSt files a page at a time with the newly modified (Time) shown first:
    alias lstm       'ls -ablptFT | more'

    # LiSt files sorted by name:
    alias lsn       'ls -ablptFT | sort +9'

    # LiSt files a page at a time sorted by name:
    alias lsnm       'ls -ablptFT | sort +9 | more'

  20. Next let's move the following 2 lines:

    alias   h     history   25
    alias   j     jobs   -l
    Move them to just before this line:

    # a righteous umask
  21. While we are here, let's comment them and tidy them up a bit.  Change them to:

    # Show the last 25 commands entered:
    alias   h     'history 25'

    # Show the status of tasks that you typed in on the command line:
    alias   j     'jobs   -l'

  22. Now let's backtrack by going back a bit to these 3 lines:

    alias   la     ls   -a
    alias   lf     ls   -FA
    alias   ll     ls   -lA
    Let's add comments and tidy them up so that they look like this:

    # LiSt (a)ll files, even those that are hidden:
    alias   la     'ls   -a'

    # LiSt (A)ll files except for '.' & '..'; show (F)iletype symbol.
    alias   lf     'ls   -FA'

    # LiSt (A)ll files except for '.' & '..'; show in (l)ong format (wide).
    alias   ll     'ls   -lA'

  23. Frequently we will need to use CDROM disks and floppy disks, so let's set up some convenient aliases for them.

  24. Let's start with the floppy disk.  We need to set up a directory before we create an alias so, let's switch to another 'terminal window'.  Enter:

    (This means hold the Alt key down while simultaneously pressing the 'F2' key.)

    For your information: FreeBSD allows for eight (8) different terminal windows (labeled ttyv0 through ttyv7).  They are accessed using Alt-F1 through Alt-F8.  This is very convenient for multitasking.

  25. Login as you usually do.


    cd /
  26. Enter:

    This shows us the (p)resent (w)orking (d)irectory. It should show:
  27. Now enter:

    mkdir /floppy
  28. Now we are going to create a file that will help us know if the floppy is mounted.  Enter the following:

    cd /floppy
  29. Now enter:
    touch   Floppy-NOT-mounted-mflop.txt
    This creates a file that will show up if the floppy disk is not mounted.  By the way, a removable drive like a floppy or CDROM needs to 'mounted' before the operating system will be able to use it.  Also, the removable drive will need to be unmounted before it is removed from the computer.

  30. To confirm that this file was actually created, enter:

    ls -lt
  31. Let's go back to the /root directory and edit our .cshrc file:


  32. It is assumed here that the floppy disks that we are working with have an MS-DOS format.  (If not, type 'man mount' to learn more.)  Let's go down below our 'LiSt' aliases and add the following:

    # An alias for mounting a MS-DOS floppy disk:
    alias mflop       'mount -t msdos /dev/fd0 /floppy'

    # An alias for unmounting a floppy disk:
    alias uflop       'umount /floppy'

  33. Once the changes in this file are implemented, when we want to use a floppy disk, we just put it in the floppy drive and enter:


  34. Next let's create a similar alias for mounting a CD-ROM disk:

    Let's setup a directory for the CD-ROM. To switch to the other terminal window, enter:

  35. You should be logged in.  If not, login as you usually do.

  36. To change to the top directory, enter:

    cd /
  37. To create a directory called '/cdrom', enter:

    mkdir /cdrom
    Now we are going to create a file that will help us know if the CD is mounted.  Enter the following:

    cd /cdrom
  38. To create a file that will show up if the CD-ROM disk is not mounted, enter:

    touch   CD-is-NOT-mounted-mcd.txt
  39. Let's go back to the /root directory and edit our .cshrc file:


  40. Just below the floppy aliases, add the following:

    # An alias for mounting a CD-ROM disk:
    alias mcd       'mount -t cd9660 /dev/acd0c /cdrom'

    # An alias for unmounting a CD disk:
    alias ucd       'umount /cdrom'

  41. Once the changes in this file are implementd, when we want to use a CD-ROM disk, we just put it in the CD-ROM drive and enter:


  42. Let's create some other useful aliases.  Enter these 8 next in our '.cshrc' file:

    # Move UP one directory:
    alias up       'cd ..'

    # Move DowN to subdir:
    alias dn       'cd ./\!*'

    # Move OVer to different directory at same level:
    alias   ov       'cd ../\!*'

    # Make a directory:
    alias   md       'mkdir'

    # Make a directory, then go to it:
    alias   mdc       'mkdir   \!* && cd   \!*'

    # Remove a directory:
    alias   rd       'rmdir'

    # Remove a subdirectory and EVERYTHING that it contains, (i)nteractively:
    alias   treedel     'rm   -dirv'

    # Remove a subdirectory and EVERYTHING that it contains, WITHOUT PROMPTS:
    alias   treezap     'rm   -dfrv'

  43. Let's comment these next 2 'history' and 'jobs' aliases like this:

    # Show the last 25 commands entered:
    alias   h     'history 25'

    # Show the status of tasks that you typed in on the command line:
    alias   j     'jobs -l'

  44. Let's customize our command prompt to include our computer's name, our UserName, and the current directory.  Because the Present Working Directory (pwd) changes frequently, we'll need to make changes to the command prompt every time this occurs.  Because of this we will need to make changes in 2 different places.

  45. First, just after these 2 lines:

    # A righteous umask
    umask   22
    let's add this alias:

    # Set up the 'cd' command to trigger a change in the command prompt:
    alias cd   'chdir \!* && set prompt="`hostname -s` ${USER} `pwd` # "'
    Note that there are three (3) types of quotation marks being used in this line.  The quote mark just before 'chdir' and on the end are single quote marks (').  The 'set prompt' command is bounded on both sides by double quote marks (").  The 'back tick' quote marks surround `hostname -s` and `pwd`.  You should be able to find the back tick on the same key as the tilde (~) on your keyboard.

  46. The second place that we need to make a command prompt change is a bit below in this same file, .cshrc.  Change the following from:

    # An interactive shell -- set some stuff up
    set prompt = "`hostname -s`# "

    # An interactive shell -- set some stuff up
    set prompt = "`hostname -s` ${USER} `pwd` # "
  47. Next, let's back up a few lines and change our default editor from 'vi' to 'pico'.

    Cursor to the line that shows:

    setenv EDITOR vi
    Change it to:

    setenv EDITOR pico
  48. We have made quite a few changes, so lets save them to disk by pressing the following key combination:

    (That's the letter 'oh', not the number 'zero')

    This will write the changed file 'Out' to disk.  Press the Enter key as required.

  49. We are done editing the '/root/.cshrc' file.  Again, it should now pretty much look like this file linked here.

  50. Now exit pico by entering:

  51. For safety's sake, let's make a backup of our hard work by entering:

    cp   -p   .cshrc   .cshrc.2.bak
  52. In order for all the changes that we made to be activated, we need to reboot.  Enter the following command:

    shutdown -r +1
  53. Once the computer reboots, login and try out your new commands.  You can see a summary of all of them by entering:

    alias | more

  54. Our next item on our configuration agenda is to set up a procedure that will update the FreeBSD ports tree in the middle of the night.  To do this we will need to edit a different file.

    Quick!  Think of a number between 15 and 45!  Write it down now. _________________   You'll find out why you need this number shortly.

    The update file we are going to edit is usually located in:

    and has the exact name as the user.  So, since we are currently logged in as 'root', that is the name of our file.

  55. To edit this file, let's first move over to that directory.  Enter:

    cd /var/cron/tabs/
  56. To invoke the special editing program, enter:

    crontab -e -u root
    Since we have set up our default editor to be pico, we see a blank file show up.

    OK, start typing the following lines.  Fill in the dates and times as appropriate.  Where you see '3:XX', put in your magic number you thought of a moment ago in place of the 'XX'.  Also put it at the beginning of the next line where you again see 'XX'.

    Where you see 'ZZ', put the CVSup server number that is nearest you.  You ascertained this when you installed FreeBSD.  If you don't recall, you can click here for CVSup servers

    On the line with 'Min'     'Hr'     etc., press the TAB key to put the proper spaces between these headings.  Use the TAB key on the actual 'cron job' line too. (It's the last one that doesn't have a '#' at the beginning.)

    #^^^^^^^The above comments were generated by 'crontab -e -u root' ^^^^^^^

    # Crontab file created 200_ September 27, 23:45

    #Min     Hr     DOM     Mnth     DOW     command

    #   At 3:XX in the morning, everyday, as root, update the ports tree:
    XX     3     *     *     *     /usr/local/bin/cvsup   -h   /usr/share/examples/cvsup/ports-supfile

  57. Double check your typing.  Make sure the lines are entered as shown here.  The line that starts with your magic number (XX) is on ONE LINE.  It may look like it wraps around--it doesn't.  That's just the way your Internet browser might be showing it.  There is only ONE LINE that doesn't have a '#' at the beginning, and that's the actual crontab line that has XX at the beginning.  Some other lines may also wrap because of your browser.

    Here are the same lines in teeny-weeny fonts so you can get a better idea:

    #^^^^^^^The above comments were generated by 'crontab -e -u root' ^^^^^^^

    # Crontab file created 200_ September 27, 23:45

    #Min     Hr     DOM     Mnth     DOW     command

    #   At 3:XX in the morning, everyday, as root, update the ports tree:
    XX     3     *     *     *     /usr/local/bin/cvsup  -h  /usr/share/examples/cvsup/ports-supfile

    Here is a third version in plain text format

  58. Pico may try to wrap lines on you, but diddle around with it so that the actual crontab line doesn't wrap and is on one line.

  59. To save your work, enter:

    This will write 'O'ut the file to the disk

  60. To exit pico, enter:


  61. As soon as you do this, the computer will monitor your newly created file once every minute and when it get to be the proper time, will execute what you have programmed it to do.

    Congratulations!  Your shell is now configured with some handy-dandy aliases, and your computer will update its ports tree every night.  Of course, you need to leave it turned on and connected to the Internet for this to happen.  It won't hurt to leave it off, but your ports tree won't be updated.

Here are some other FreeBSD related links:
How to Install FreeBSD

Shell Configuration

FreeBSD Device List

Hardware Burn-In Test Using FreeBSD

FreeBSD Commands Cheat Sheet

'make install' fails on FreeBSD

The FreeBSD 'Handbook' online

Search for Answers to Questions about FreeBSD

How to Install NTP (Network Time Protocol) software on FreeBSD

How to Install Samba file server software on FreeBSD

Mounting and Using the Floppy Drive in FreeBSD

Mounting and Using the CD-ROM Drive in FreeBSD

How to Find or Search for a Directory or a file

How to Preserve the Date and Time Stamp When Copying Files

How to Copy Files, and Directories recursively in FreeBSD / unix

How To Fix The 'Read Only File System' Problem When rc.conf is Corrupted on Freebsd

Random Passwords Generator

URL Decoder / Link Maker

AT YOUR OWN RISK: These instructions have no guarantee or warrantee of fitness for any purpose whatsoever--and none shall be implied or inferred.  If you use these and incur any kind of damage--it is your responsibility.

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